Oedema (Edema) is the medical term for swelling. Body parts swell from injury or inflammation. because It can affect a small area or the entire body. Medications, pregnancy, infections, and many other medical problems can cause edema. Edema happens when your small blood vessels leak fluid into nearby tissues. That extra fluid builds up, which makes the tissue swell. So it can happen almost anywhere in the body. Types of Edema: Peripheral edema,Pedal edema, Lymphedema, Pulmonary edema, Cerebral edema, and Macular edema.